Sabtu, 06 Agustus 2011

Belajar Phrase dalam Bahasa Inggris

Mari belajar phrase dalam bahasa Inggris
Bagi teman-teman bahasa Inggris yang mau belajar phrase dibawah ini akan dibahas sekelumit tentang phrase dalam bahasa Inggris.

Definition of Phrase
Phrase is a syntactic structure that consists of more than one word but lacks the subject-predicate organization of a clause. (Atau simpelnya gini: phrase adalah kata yang bermakna dan tidak berpola subject verb).
Kinds of Phrase
1.    Noun Phrase
Noun phrase ( NP) adalah phrase yang head/intinya ada pada noun.
w.o : M     H
                 H       M
         M     H      M
a)    Noun + Noun
Example : Police office
b)   Adjective + Noun
Example : Beautiful girl
c)    Gerund + Noun
Example : Studying English
d)   Article + Noun
Example : The book

2.    Adjective Phrase
Adjective phrase ( AP) adalah phrase yang head/intinya ada pada adjective.
w.o : M    H                very handsome          (khusus adverb of degree)
         H     M               handsome enough      (khusus adverb enough)

3.    Adverbial Phrase
Adverbial phrase ( AVP) adalah phrase yang head/intinya ada pada adverb.
w.o : M    H                very seldom     M----- adverb of degree
         H    M                slowly enough

4.    Prepositional Phrase (Pp)
Prepositional Phrase (Pp) adalah phrase yang berpola preposition + object of preposition
w.o : prep + object of preposition (N, Pron, Np)
e.g : N………  in class
       Pron…….by her
       Np……… in white house

5.    Verb Phrase
Verb Phrase (VP) is built around a verb and the latter can be in the present or past tense. The VP can also include optional material that explains when, where, why, and how the action or state that the verb describes took place. (simpelnya gini: VP adalah phrase yang berpola Verb auxiliary + Verb ordinary).
Ø Gijsbert washed the dishes and Mariken did so as well.

6.    Gerun Phrase (Gp)
GP adalah phrase yang intinya ada pada gerund.  (gerund ing form as noun)
Ø Making my mother happy is my purpose.
Ø Would you mind helping me to to this duty?

7.    Exclamatory Phrase (EP)
EP adalah phrase yang berfungsi sebagai luapan emosi. ciri-cirinya terdapat exclamatory word (what, how)
   Ø I’ve just done a very difficult 
                 What difficult exercise I’ve just done.
   Ø Oky will be screaming so laudly.
     How laudly Oky will be screaming

8.    To infinitive Phrase (IP)
a)    To infinitive phrase
The to infinitive is a form of the verb that comes after the word to and acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb. An infinitive phrase contains modifiers that together act as a single part of speech. (simpelnya gini: phrase yang intinya ada pada invinitif)
Ø The honorees did not want to attend the banquet in the evening.
Ø The infinitive phrase is “to attend the banquet in the evening.”
b)   Bare infinitive phrase
              w.o :        Vt     O
                             Vi      adv
                             Lv     Cs
              Function : in sentence    - Complemen object after causative verb
Ø We let abdul run in the yard.
Ø Hana has Hani climb the tree.

9.    Participle Phrase
a)    Present Particile Phrase
              w.o :        Vt     O
                             Vi      adv
                             Lv     Cs
In phrase   Np-post Modifier
In sentence       (1) Co (complement object)
                         (2) adverb
Ø  Waching television, Rani cries.
b)   Past Participle Phrase
               w.o :       Vt     O
                              Vi      adv
                              Lv     Cs
Function:      in phrase    - Np   - post modifier
                                 in sentence-----(1) Co (complement object)
                                   ----- (2) adverb
  John has his cloth washed by Prety.

Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartvik, A Communicative Grammar of English, United State: Longman, 1975.
Marcella Frank, Modern English; A Practical Reference Guide, United State: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.
Laurie Rozakis, English Grammar for the Utterly Confused, New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.

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